Cần phát triển ngành công nghiệp khí hóa than ngầm

Trong các nguồn nhiên liệu hóa thạch trên thế giới, trữ lượng than được xem là phong phú nhất, được phân bố tại khoảng 70 quốc gia. Trữ lượng than đủ dùng trong 120 năm tới, gấp đôi khí tự nhiên và gấp ba lần dầu mỏ.

Triển vọng của công nghệ UCG.nangluongvietnam.org
Triển vọng của công nghệ UCG.nangluongvietnam.org

Để huy động nguồn tài nguyên than một cách kinh tế nhất, từ lâu, con người đã biết áp dụng công nghệ khí hóa than ngầm UCG (Underground Coal Gasification).
Theo tính toán của các chuyên gia, công nghệ UCG có thể giúp tăng gấp đôi khả năng khả năng sử dụng than trên toàn cầu.
Khí hóa than ngầm (UCG) là một loại hình khí hóa than tại chỗ, trong các vỉa than nằm sâu dưới bề mặt đất. Qua các lỗ khoan, không khí, ôxi hoặc hơi nước được bơm vào trong vỉa than, đốt cháy và cung cấp nhiên liệu cho quá trình cháy ngầm.
Một giếng riêng biệt được sử dụng để đưa sản phẩm khí tạo ra trong quá trình đốt lên mặt đất. UCG vừa được xem là một quá trình khai thác (như khai thác than) vừa được xem là một quá trình chuyển đổi (khí hóa) nhằm tạo ra một loại khí tổng hợp.
Loại khí này được xử lý để sản xuất ra nhiên liệu cho nhà máy điện, dầu điêzen, nhiên liệu phản lực, khí hydro, phân bón, hóa chất…
Phát minh ra công nghệ UCG được cho là của Carl Wilhelm Siemens, người đầu tiên trình bày ý tưởng về vấn đề này tại một hội nghị quốc tế ở London vào năm 1868. Mặc dù công nghệ UCG đã được triển khai tại Nga vào những năm đầu của thập kỷ 60, thế kỷ 20, nhưng do nguồn tài nguyên khí đốt tại đây rất lớn nên công nghệ này không được quan tâm phát triển. Tới nay, những thử nghiệm về công nghệ này đã được tiến hành tại châu Âu, Mỹ và Australia.
Trong bối cảnh các nguồn năng lượng ngày càng trở lên cạn kiệt, các công nghệ sản xuất năng lượng mới dường như đã đóng vai trò quan trọng trong hỗn hợp năng lượng tương lai.
Công nghệ UCG cho phép tiếp cận các nguồn tài nguyên than không thể khai thác một cách kinh tế bằng các công nghệ khác, ví dụ như các khoáng sàng than quá sâu, chất lượng than quá thấp hoặc vỉa than quá mỏng.
Đây cũng chính là nguyên nhân khiến cho công nghệ UCG phát triển mạnh mẽ trong những năm gần đây. Ngày càng nhiều công ty sản xuất năng lượng đầu tư thử nghiệm và phát triển công nghệ này.
Nhằm thỏa mãn các nhu cầu về năng lượng, Trung Quốc hiện là một trong các quốc gia đi đầu trong việc triển khai thác công nghệ UCG với khoảng trên 30 dự án lớn đang được xây dựng.
Ấn Độ cũng đã xây dựng các kế hoạch áp dụng công nghệ UCG trong việc tiếp cận 350 tỷ tấn than khó có thể khai thác.
Tại Nam Phi, hai tập đoàn Sasol và Eskom cũng đã tiến hành xây dựng thử nghiệm các trạm khí hóa than ngầm nhằm trang bị các cơ sở vật chất và đào tạo chuyên gia, nâng cao kiến thức trong lĩnh vực này.
Tới nay, đã có những nghiên cứu và dự án mang tính trình diễn được tiến hành tại Mỹ, châu Âu, Nhật Bản, Việt Nam, ấn Độ, Australia và Trung Quốc trên quy mô thử nghiệm và công nghiệp.
Trong bối cảnh phải hạn chế phát thải khí cacbon, công nghệ UCG kết hợp với công nghệ thu giữ khí cacbon CCS (carbon capture and storage) hiện đang được xem là một giải pháp sử dụng than hiệu quả, lượng phát thải thấp, đặc biệt là đối với các nhà máy điện sử dụng than.
Các giải pháp sử dụng than truyền thống và phi truyền thống, như công nghệ UCG, đều đóng một vai trò quan trọng trong việc đảm bảo an ninh năng lượng, đáp ứng nhu cầu năng lượng trong xã hội ngày càng tăng.
Trong quá trình thử nghiệm công nghệ UCG, đã có những phản đối trong dư luận xã hội liên quan đến những hậu quả ô nhiễm nguồn nước ngầm do công nghệ này gây ra và đây cũng là một trong những nguyên nhân khiến cho một dự án áp dụng công nghệ UCG tại Queensland, Australia năm 2010 phải dừng lại.
Tuy nhiên, tại hội nghị chuyên đề về UCG, nhiều báo cáo đã đề cập đến những giải pháp nhằm hoàn thiện công nghệ UCG cả về kinh tế lẫn tác động môi trường, đồng thời kêu gọi chính phủ các nước cũng như các ngành công nghiệp ủng hộ việc áp dụng công nghệ UCG trên phạm vi rộng lớn.

Nguồn: NangluongVietnam.vn

79 thoughts on “Cần phát triển ngành công nghiệp khí hóa than ngầm

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